OGC Web Map Service (WMS)

The OGC Web Map Service (WMS) is a standard communication protocol for serving maps on the web from several georeferenced data sources. WMS implementation involves the setup of a WMS server (to access, read and draw the data), and a WMS client (to query the server using specific request operations, e.g. GetCapabilities for retrieving information about the map layers being exposed, GetMap for retrieving a map image of the data).

OGC Web Processing Service (WPS)

The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) is an interface standard for invoking geospatial services on the Internet, providing rules for the definition of inputs/outputs (i.e. requests/responses). WPS defines how a client can request the execution of a process and how the output from the process is handled. WPS makes it possible to execute a process thanks to different operations (e.g. GetCapabilities for information about the service, DescribeProcess for process description including inputs and outputs, Execute for the output of the process).

OVF (Open Virtualization Format)

OVF (Open Virtualization Format) is a standard from DMTF, which aims to completely describe an application comprised of any number of virtual machines in a standard and portable format, written as an XML file.

SAML (Security Authorization Markup Language)

SAML (Security Authorization Markup Language) is an XML-based standard by OASIS for exchanging authentication and authorisation information between identity provider and service provider.


Shibboleth is web-based technology from the Internet2 initiative that implements identity management and federated identity-based authentication and authorization.

TOSCA (Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications)

TOSCA (Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications) from OASIS proposes an XML-based standard language to enable the interoperable description of cloud applications and infrastructure cloud services. Each cloud application is formalised as a typed topology graph and the management tasks as plans. TOSCA enhances the portability and management of software components, and facilitates the migration to any compliant cloud, but it does not execute the actual portability of the application.


WS-Federation is a standard proposed by OASIS for implementing federation identity; it enables a security domain to broker for identities, identity attributes and authentication.


WS-Policy is a W3C standard that defines how web services can use XML to express their constraints in terms of policies on security and QoS and how end users can specify their policy requirements (expressed as policy assertions).


WS-Security is an OASIS security standard that extends the Simple Object Access protocol (SOAP) to define how integrity and confidentiality can be enforced on messages by using Extensible Markup Language (XML) Signature and XML Encryption.


X.1601 is an ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T) family standard that addresses the design security framework for cloud computing. The standard analyses the security threats and challenges in cloud computing, and provides recommendations to mitigate security risks. From these analysis and recommendations, a cloud computing customer should be able to do a risk assessment of adopting cloud computing. Major threats analysed in the standard for cloud customers are: data loss and leakage, insecure service access, and insider threats. The main security challenges for customers are: ambiguity in responsibility due to legal requirements, loss of governance and privacy by outsourcing services to cloud providers, and cloud service provider lock-in. Finally the standard ITU-T X1600 identifies recommendations to address security threats and challenges.