ESRI Shapefile

The ESRI Shapefile format is a de facto standard for storing geospatial vector data in files. Developed originally by the Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), the format gained prominence through widespread use in the field of Geospatial Information Systems. The shapefile format makes it possible to spatially describe vector features (points, lines, and polygons), representing for example boreholes, transportation networks and buildings. Each item can have descriptive attributes, such as a name or a scientific measurement.

OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW)

The OGC Catalogue Service for the Web (CSW) is a standard for interacting with one or many catalogue(s) of geospatial records on the web. CSW makes it possible to publish and search collections of descriptive information (metadata) for data, services, and related information objects. Metadata in catalogues can be queried thanks to different CSW operations (e.g. GetCapabilities for retrieving service metadata, DescribeRecord for discovering elements of the information, GetRecords for searching for records).

OGC Simple Features Access (SFA)

The OGC Simple Features Access (SFA) is a standard that describes the common architecture for simple feature geometry (i.e. two-dimensional geographical data like points, lines, polygons, multi-lines) and defines a standard SQL schema that supports storage, access and update of these data. The PostGIS extension to PostgreSQL is an example of open source software that follows the Simple Features for SQL specification.

OGC Web Feature Service (WFS)

The OGC Web Feature Service (WFS) is a standard communication protocol ensuring interoperability for exchanging geographical features across the web. Geographical features are vector data like points, lines and polygons. WFS provides interfaces for manipulating features via different operations (e.g. GetCapabilities for serving the supported operations, GetFeature for serving geometries or attributes under various formats like GML or JSON, Transaction for creating, modify and deleting features published by the service).

OGC Web Map Service (WMS)

The OGC Web Map Service (WMS) is a standard communication protocol for serving maps on the web from several georeferenced data sources. WMS implementation involves the setup of a WMS server (to access, read and draw the data), and a WMS client (to query the server using specific request operations, e.g. GetCapabilities for retrieving information about the map layers being exposed, GetMap for retrieving a map image of the data).

OGC Web Processing Service (WPS)

The OGC Web Processing Service (WPS) is an interface standard for invoking geospatial services on the Internet, providing rules for the definition of inputs/outputs (i.e. requests/responses). WPS defines how a client can request the execution of a process and how the output from the process is handled. WPS makes it possible to execute a process thanks to different operations (e.g. GetCapabilities for information about the service, DescribeProcess for process description including inputs and outputs, Execute for the output of the process).